When people hear “Open Access” (OA), they think of “free access.” While free access is an important aspect of Open Access publications, OA is more than that. According to the Open Definition, which sets out principles that define openness in relation to data and content, this is information that can be used freely, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose.
It is no secret that true openness brings excellent opportunities for academia, while transparency is essential for trust and credibility in the research community.
In this article, we’ll cover what openness is in research, why it is important, open research data characteristics, protecting data ownership, and any roadblocks we may come across. Finally, we will discuss how Orvium paves the way for openness.
What Is Openness in Research?
Openness refers to the principle of freedom of access by any interested individual or group to the underlying data, processes, and the final results of research. Openness is an essential part of the research community affecting everyone in science; researchers can make significant progress when they have access to all the information relevant to their research.
What Is an Example of Openness?
An example of openness is the practice of open-notebook science. This involves placing a researcher’s personal or laboratory notebook online accompanied by all the raw and processed data and any additional materials, as this information is being generated. It is one of the most transparent approaches to research and includes the less significant, failed, and otherwise unpublished experiments.
Open-notebook science is essential because it implies that the research is reported on an ongoing basis, without significant delay. This, in turn, enables others to understand precisely how research happens within a field or a specific research group. This research is then valuable to collaborators, prospective students, or future employers.
Why Is Openness Important in Research?
The world is becoming more collaborative. Openness and free information sharing among scientists are supposed to be the main pillars of the scientific community but, unfortunately, this is still not universally followed. Therefore, lack of openness and transparency means that scientific problem solving is constrained to a few scientists who work in secret and typically fail to take advantage of the entire accumulation of scientific knowledge available.
Alternatively, collaboration can have many benefits. It can:
- lead to more sustainable motivation
- result in incredibly rapid progress
- often lead to better results
- be a lot more fun.
Not only that, but when researchers share data and knowledge in the early stages of the research process, it helps spread the latest breakthroughs.
The current need for global governance of science from European institutions has accelerated the need for openness. These institutions consider the transition towards openness a fundamental step in fostering the circulation of knowledge as the direction towards faster and wider innovation. One such institution is the European Commission with its Open Science policy.
Together with scientific communities, such institutions have started a dialogue to build a common infrastructure that will allow scientists, citizens, and companies to access a shared pool of scientific resources. This is called the Open Science Cloud.
The Open Science Cloud brings together international and European stakeholders, initiatives, and infrastructures. And it does all of this in a trusted, virtual, federated environment. It cuts across borders and scientific disciplines to store, process, share, and reuse data and software, which makes these infrastructures indispensable when it comes to openness in research.
Open Research Data Characteristics
Open research data has been considered a driving force of scientific transparency. It refers to the data supporting scientific research results with no restrictions, allowing anyone access.
The benefits to sharing research data include:
- more possibilities for collaboration
- reproducibility of research
- encouraging other researchers to share their data publicly
- increased likeliness to be cited
- increased likeliness to be accepted for publication in a journal.
The benefits of sharing open research data are essentially endless. When researchers make their data public, they increase trust and transparency in their work, enable others to build upon their work, and reproduce, reuse, and validate their findings.
Below you can find an image outlining the different dimension of open research data;
Protecting the Ownership of Open Data
Open data can be protected and safely reused in several ways. Here are a few examples:
- Horizon 2020 - the biggest EU research and innovation initiative, with a simple structure and open to everyone, is seen to drive economic growth and create jobs. Its main goal is to ensure Europe produces top-notch science, removes barriers to innovation, and makes it easier to deliver innovation from the public and private sectors.
- FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable data) principles - a measurable set of principles that have improved the reuse of scholarly data. The main objective of these principles is to guarantee the validity and reproducibility of the published scientific data. Open data is therefore easily accessible to the entire community, and by following this set of principles, we establish a common foundation that increases the potential of open data.
- Creative Commons (CC) - clearly establishes how information can be reused. Research results have to be open to add value to research and CCs ensure researchers get the credit they deserve for their work and allow others to copy, distribute, and make some use of their work (full licenses here).
Roadblocks to Openness in Science
Some researchers still choose not to publish openly because of certain fears, limitations, personal or intrinsic reasons, or motivations.
- Competition and fear of being “scooped” - sometimes, researchers feel pressure (because of other researchers, journals, etc.) to publish more and fast than to do it correctly and with the time needed, which leads to lower quality research. At the same time, many researchers fear being “scooped” (someone else stealing your ideas or researching the same topic at the same time). In addition to being a source of stress for researchers, these fears also become a barrier in Open Science, especially with open data. Fear of competition and of being scooped was at the top of researchers’ lists as a disadvantage to open publishing.
- Authorship issues - it becomes rather tricky to get permission from all partners and researchers of a large collaborative project; researchers would need to talk to many parties to obtain permission to share the data openly. Another roadblock is the fact that some researchers have trust in close peers, but not necessarily in the research community or society at large.
- Data characteristics - some datasets are extensive; such is the case in astrophysics, for example. Providing adequate metadata so another researcher can quickly understand what they are looking at and all the right tools that allow them to access the data become difficult. Large datasets result in additional time to load and store data, and additional machine space is needed.
- Fear of scrutiny - not all researchers can handle having their work scrutinized. This means that they would rather not publish their research than have someone look at their work in detail. They would prefer to publish only their final, presentable results.
As long as these fears and limitations are properly addressed, cultural change can happen, which can lead to making openness mainstream.
Openness in research is slowly but surely becoming the default for the scientific community and the community at large. Roadblocks will not be present forever, as more and more researchers become comfortable publishing under an OA umbrella. We have already mentioned the advantages and benefits of working collaboratively. We have talked about why and how openness is important to research.
Now we want to mention how Orvium helps with openness. Orvium is an Open Access platform that:
- Helps researchers disseminate their work,
- Supports scientific collaboration and guarantees access to research,
- Streamlines open peer review,
- Collaborates with OpenAIRE and Google Scholar,
- Increases researcher visibility, and offers them a chance to expand their audience by having their papers accessible both in OpenAIRE and Orvium.